Brigadier (Air force) Musa Usman was the first governor of North-Eastern State, Nigeria from May 1967 to July 1975 after the state had been formed from part of Northern Region during the military regime of General Yakubu Gowon.

Usman attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, England gaining his commission in 1962. Major Usman was a participant in the July 1966 coup when Major General Aguiyi Ironsi was overthrown, replaced by General Yakubu Gowon. Appointed governor of North-East State in May 1967, Usman initiated construction of the Ashaka cement factory, eventually opened on 19 July 1979 by Major-General Shehu Musa Yar’Adua. In 1975 he participated in friendly negotiations with Cameroon to settle the border between that country and Nigeria. He was a cautious supporter of the principle that the military government should hand over to civilian rule in 1976.

After retirement, he was allocated a residence in the prestigious Jabi Street area of Kaduna. Usman later became a director of the Bank of the North


ca. 1983-1985, Nigeria — General Muhammadu Buhari of Nigeria — Image by © William Campbell/Sygma/Corbis

Muhammadu Buhari GCFR (born 17 December 1942) is a Nigerian politician currently serving as the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. Buhari is a retired military general of the Nigerian Army and previously served as military Head of State from 1983 to 1985, after taking power in a military coup d’état. The term Buharism is ascribed to the conservative right-wing policies of his military regime. Buhari has stated that he takes responsibility for anything over which he presided during his military rule, and that he cannot change the past. He has described himself as a “converted democrat”.

He unsuccessfully ran for the office of President of Nigeria in the 2003, 2007, and 2011 general elections. In December 2014, he emerged as the presidential candidate of the All Progressives Congress for the March 2015 general elections. Buhari won the election, defeating the incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan. This marked the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost to an opposition candidate in a general election. He was sworn in on 29 May 2015. In February 2019, Buhari was re-elected President, defeating his closest rival Atiku Abubakar by over 3 million votes.

Early Life

Muhammadu Buhari was born to a Fulani family on 17 December 1942, in Daura, Katsina State, to his father Mallam Hardo Adamu, a Fulani chieftain, and his mother Zulaihat. He is the twenty-third child of his father. Buhari was raised by his mother, after his father died when he was about four years old. He attended primary school in Daura and Mai’adua, in 1953, Katsina Middle School, and attended Katsina Provincial Secondary School from 1956 to 1961.

Military Career

Buhari enrolled at age 19 in the Nigerian Military Training College (NMTC) in 1962. In February 1964, the college was upgraded to an officer commissioning unit of the Nigerian Army and renamed the Nigerian Defence Academy (NDA) (prior to 1964, the Nigerian government sent cadets who had completed their NMTC preliminary training to mostly Commonwealth military academies for officer cadet training). From 1962 to 1963, Buhari underwent officer cadet training at Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot in England.

In January 1963, at age 20, Buhari was commissioned a second lieutenant and appointed Platoon Commander of the Second Infantry Battalion in Abeokuta, Nigeria. From November 1963 to January 1964, Buhari attended the Platoon Commanders’ Course at the Nigerian Military Training College, Kaduna. In 1964, he facilitated his military training by attending the Mechanical Transport Officer’s Course at the Army Mechanical Transport School in Borden, United Kingdom. From 1965 to 1967, Buhari served as commander of the Second Infantry Battalion and appointed brigade major, Second Sector, First Infantry Division, April 1967 to July 1967.

Civil War

Buhari was assigned to the 1st Division under the command of Lt. Col Mohammed Shuwa, the division had temporarily moved from Kaduna to Makurdi at the onset of the Nigerian Civil War. The 1st division was divided into sectors and then battalions with Shuwa assisted by sector commanders Martin Adamu and Sule Apollo who was later replaced by Theophilus Danjuma. Buhari’s initial assignment was as Adjutant and Company Commander 2 battalion unit, Second Sector Infantry of the 1st Division. The 2 battalion was one of the units that participated in the first actions of the war, they started from Gakem near Afikpo and moved towards Ogoja with support from Gado Nasko’s artillery squad. They reached and captured Ogoja within a week with the intention of advancing through the flanks to Enugu, the rebel capital. Buhari was briefly the 2 battalion’s Commander and led the battalion to Afikpo to link with the 3rd Marine Commando and advance towards Enugu through Nkalagu and Abakaliki. However, before the move to Enugu, he was posted to Nsukka as Brigade Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade under Joshua Gin who would later become battle fatigued and replaced by Isa Bukar.

Buhari stayed with the infantry for a few months as the Nigerian army began to adjust tactics learnt from early battle experiences. Instead of swift advances, the new tactics involved securing and holding on to the lines of communications and using captured towns as training ground to train new recruits brought in from the army depots in Abeokuta and Zaria. In 1968, he was posted to the 4 Sector also called the Awka sector which was charged to take over the capture of Onitsha from Division 2. The sector’s operations were within the Awka-Abagana-Onitsha region which was important to Biafran forces because it was a major source of food supply. It was in the sector that Buhari’s group suffered a lot of casualties trying to protect food supplies route of the rebels along Oji River and Abagana.


Group Captain Mustapha A. Amin was the first governor of Borno State, Nigeria from March 1976 to July 1978 during the military regime of General Olusegun Obasanjo, after that state had been formed when North-Eastern State was divided into Bauchi, Borno, and Gongola states.

Amin was a Group Captain in the Nigerian Airforce when appointed governor by the supreme military council. In an attempt to stop desert encroachment, he imposed restriction on tree cutting permits and made it an offense to set fires to clear the land. He called for establishment on an inland port to serve Lake Chad.


Babatunde “Tunde” Abdulbaki Idiagbon (14 September 1943 – 24 March 1999) was a Nigerian Army major general who served as chief of staff at Supreme Headquarters (de facto vice president) under the military regime of Major General Muhammadu Buhari from 1983 to 1985.

He was also a key member of Nigeria’s military governments between 1966 and 1979, serving as a military administrator of Borno State under General Olusegun Obasanjo’s military government.

He died on 24 March 1999 in Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria. Idiagbon was one of Nigeria’s egalitarian military leaders.


Alhaji Mohammed Goni is a retired civil servant who was Governor of Borno State, Nigeria (1979–1983) in the Nigerian Second Republic.


Mohammed Goni was born in 1942 in Kareto, Mobbar Local Government Area, Borno State. He attended Maiduguri Middle School (1953–55), Borno Provincial Secondary School (1956–61), Provincial Secondary School, Kano (1962–63) and the Institute of Administration, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (1964–87), where he gained a BA (Administration), specialising in international affairs.

In 1977, he transferred to the Nigerian National Supply Company.

Governor of Borno State

In April 1979, Mohammed Goni resigned from the National Supply Company and entered politics. He was elected as the first civilian governor of the former Borno State, on the platform of the Great Nigeria Peoples Party (GNPP) and was in office from October 1979 to September 1983. He was also part of the Progressives Coalition led by Chief Obafemi Awolowo. Goni founded the Borno Radio Television (BRTV) to counter the propaganda which was being pumped out of the Federal Government owned and sponsored Nigerian Television Authority (NTA). In retrospect, his period of office was considered one of achievement when compared with his successors.

Before the 1983 elections, Goni transferred to the Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN), running unsuccessfully for reelection against the Nigerian People’s Party (NPP) candidate Sheikh Jarma. In the case of Federal Electoral Commission v Alhadji Mohammed Goni (1983), the Supreme Court of Nigeria condemned cross-carpeting by political officeholders.

Later Career

Mohammed Goni was a member of the committee that drafted the 1995 Constitution. In the April 2003 general elections, he ran on the United Nigeria People’s Party (UNPP) platform as vice-presidential candidate with Jim Nwobodo as the presidential candidate. They were not elected.

In January 2011 he was elected by PDP delegates in Borno state to be their gubernatorial flag-bearer in the April 2011 elections.


Asheik Jarma was elected Governor of Borno State, Nigeria in October 1983, holding office briefly until the military coup on 31 December 1983 that brought General Mohammadu Buhari to power. He was elected on the National Party of Nigeria (NPN) platform.

In the lead up to restoration of democracy in 1999, Jarma was a founding member of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). In April 2001 the PDP suspended Jarma from its board of trustees for one month for flirting with other political associations. In November 2001 he was a member of the interim contact and mobilisation committee for the newly formed United Nigeria Democratic Party (UNDP).

In July 2008 a Senate ad hoc committee probing a food crisis implicated Jarma among others for abandoning £11.4 million worth of silo contracts. In October 2009 he denied that he had attended the kick-off meeting of the recently launched National Democratic Movement (NDM) and said he had always been a bona fide member of the PDP. In December 2009 Jarma endorsed the PDP candidature of Ambassador Saidu Pindar for Borno Governor in the 2011 election


Major General Abubakar Waziri (28 September 1940 – 2002) was the Military Governor of Bendel State in Nigeria from July 1978 to September 1979 during the transitional period of military to civilian government under General Olusegun Obasanjo. Later he was military governor of Borno State from January 1984 to August 1985 during the regime of General Muhammadu Buhari.

Waziri was born in the Fika Emirate in Yobe State. Waziri was one of the referees of “Exercise SunStroke”, a ten-day field exercise conducted early in 1975 that turned out to be a dress rehearsal for the Military Rebellion of 29 July 1975, when General Yakubu Gowon was removed from power and replaced by Murtala Muhammed. While governor of Bendel State, Waziri was also Brigade Commander, 4 Mechanised Brigade, Nigeria Army Benin City.

Medical services in Borno State were minimal at the time he held office (January 1984 to August 1985), with only one doctor for every 65,000 people. The state had a severe drought in this period, losing over 660,000 tons of crops. Waziri initiated a direct feeding program in the Borno secondary schools to ensure students were not exploited by private contractors.


Col (rtd) Abdulmumini Aminu (born 1949) was military governor of Borno State, Nigeria between August 1985 and December 1987 during the military regime of General Ibrahim Babangida. He later became Chairman of the Nigeria Football Association, and then Chairman of the West Africa Football Union.

Military career

Aminu was one of the officers who arrested General Muhammadu Buhari in the August 1985 coup in which General Ibrahim Babangida came to power. Aminu was a Major in his mid-thirties when Babangida appointed him governor of Borno State later that month. At Nigeria’s first national AIDS conference in October 1987, Aminu said the theory that AIDS originated in Africa is a stalking horse for anti-black racism, due to a mentality that attributes everything that is bad and negative to the so-called dark continent. As Borno Governor, Aminu was challenged by lack of funds, and initially by resistance to his authority as an outsider. He made education his priority.

After his term as governor, Aminu became an instructor at the Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji. He was then appointed deputy military secretary, then Brigade Commander and then was acting General Officer Commander Jos. He was then appointed Commander of the National Guard, responsible for improving national security. Aminu retired when General Sani Abacha came to power.


Aminu was Chairman of the Nigeria Football Association (NFA) in 1997. In the France ’98 World Cup competition, he ordered bonus payments of $8,000 each to the Nigerian players, despite losing to Paraguay in the last group match of the competition. In April 1999, as NFA Chairman Aminu was head of Nigeria’s Local Organizing Committee, preparing to host World Cup players in Liberty Stadium, Ibadan during the 1999 FIFA World Youth Championship tournament. In July 2004, Aminu was a vice-chairman of a 17-man committee set up to re-organise the Nigeria Football Association.

He was in competition with Air Commodore Emeka Omeruah to be selected as the next president of the West Africa Football Union (WAFU) in 1999. In November 1998, the government expressed its support for Omeruah. In March 1999, the head of Ghana Football Association gave his tacit support to Aminu’s bid, provided he showed clear interest in the job. Aminu became president of the West Africa Football Union from 1999 to 2002, and a member of the Confederation of African Football. He set his goal to reinvigorate the almost moribund organization.


Aminu joined the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) at the start of the Nigerian Fourth Republic. He later switched to the United Nigeria People’s Party (UNPP). Aminu ran for governor of Katsina State in April 2003, but lost out to the incumbent Umaru Musa Yar’Adua, who later went on to become President of Nigeria.

In April 2004, Aminu rejoined the PDP, saying that the UNPP was in disarray. In June 2007, Aminu joined the race to succeed Bala Bawa Ka’oje as the Chairman of the National Sports Commission. The job in fact was given to Abdulrahman Hassan Gimba.


Major-General Abdul One Mohammed was military governor of Borno State, Nigeria, and later was leader of the ECOMOG peacekeeping force in Liberia and Sierra Leone.

General Ibrahim Babangida appointed Colonel Abdul One Mohammed military governor of Borno State from December 1987 to December 1989. In 1997 Abdul One Mohammed was posted to the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) as Deputy ECOMOG commander and Chief of Staff, heading operation in Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Sierra Leone

In November 1997 Abdul Mohammed denied ECOMOG’s fighter jets had violated a ceasefire agreement in an incident where fighters had intervened against ships trying the break the UN embargo against the junta in Sierra Leone. He said “Our aircraft were shot at so we returned fire”. On 9 February 1998 the ECOMOG troops launched an all-out offensive to regain control of Freetown, capital of Sierra Leone. Abdul One Mohammed said his troops were near the Freetown city centre and would continue their advance.

On 24 February 1998 Abdul One Mohammed said that commercial and humanitarian cargoes could now enter the harbour of Freetown and that the airport was also open. The embargo on arms remained in force. He said he planned to soon deploy troops to gain better control of the hinterland and expected all roads in the Bo area to be reopened soon. On 25 February 1998 One Mohammed said his troops had moved in from Kenema and had taken over Bo from RUF rebels after heavy fighting. ECOMOG units held key positions in the city, backed up by Kamajor militiamen.


Liberians held a parade for ECOMOG peacekeepers in January 1998, who were due to leave the country on 2 February. Abdul One Mohammed called on Liberians to “put hands together and consolidate the peace we have put together”. Earlier that month, he had expressed concern that trends could lead to renewal of conflict in Liberia, including the “re-enlistment of soldiers who have been identified with the seven-year fratricidal war.

In July 1998 Abdul One Mohammed said he regretted that Liberia’s security forces were not retrained at the end of the civil war. He also said that ECOMOG had failed to establish a gun-free society in Liberia because “former warlords” had told their fighters to keep their weapons. In August 1998 he denied an accusation by Liberian President Charles Taylor that ECOMOG was planning to send more troops to destabilize the Liberian government. He said this was ridiculous since ECOMOG had been trying to restore peace since 1990, and Nigeria alone had spent millions of dollars for that purpose.

Later events

Abdul One Mohammed was replaced as ECOMOG Chief of Staff in July 1998 by Brigadier-General G. Kwabe. During hearings of the Special Tribunal on Sierre Leone in 2004, a witness said that Hinga Norman, a former Sierra Leone People’s Party (SLPP) Interior minister and Civil Defence Forces leader had said he received arms and ammunition from Abdul One Mohammed. In 2006 Abdul One Mohammed was unable to appear at the trial of Hinga Norman since he had been receiving medical attention in Germany and was too ill to travel to Freetown.


Lt. Colonel Mohammed Maina was governor of Borno State, Nigeria during the military administrations of Generals Ibrahim Babangida.

Maina was a member of the Lagos Zone military tribunal set up in 1984 by the administration of General Muhammadu Buhari to try public officers from the Shehu Shagari era who had been accused of embezzling public funds. Appointed Borno State governor in 1990, he lived lavishly and had no patience with accounting procedures, making withdrawals from state funds through “brief notes to accounting authorities at the Treasury. In March 1990 he entertained the Prince and Princess of Wales on a visit to the state.


Mohammed Buba Marwa (born September 9, 1953) is a retired Nigerian army officer who served as governor of Borno State, and then Lagos State during the military administrations of Generals Ibrahim Babangida and Sani Abacha

Birth and education

Mohammed Buba Marwa was born on September 9, 1953 in Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria. He hails from Michika L.G.A of Adamawa State. He attended the Nigerian Military School, Zaria and the Nigerian Defense Academy, Kaduna. Later, while in the army, he studied at Pittsburgh University, where he obtained a master’s degree in International Relations, and he obtained a master’s degree in Public Administration from Harvard University.

Military Career

He was commissioned as 2nd lieutenant in the Nigerian Army Reconnaissance Corps before moving to the Armoured Corp. He held various posts in the army, including Brigade Major (23 Armoured Brigade), Aide-de-Camp (ADC) to Chief of Army Staff, Lieutenant-General Theophilus Danjuma, academic registrar of the Nigerian Defense Academy and deputy defense adviser in the Nigerian Embassy in Washington, DC. In 1990, he was appointed Governor of Borno State. In 1992, he became the defense adviser to the Nigerian Permanent Mission to the United Nations.

Lagos State Governor

From 1996 to 1999 Marwa was Military Governor of Lagos State. During his administration, he implemented programs such as “Operation 250 Roads” which greatly improved motoring conditions. He revamping public health institutions and ensured that free malaria treatment that was available to all. His administration upgraded infrastructure in poor neighborhoods. He proclaimed an edict to regulate rents, stopping the “Jankara” method of eviction of tenants and ensuring that due process was followed. Marwa became well respected in Lagos because of “Operation Sweep”, a joint police and military venture that helped reduce Lagos’ notorious crime rate.

In February 1998, Buba Marwa said on Nigerian state radio and television that unknown persons were again trying to assassinate him, and that he and his entourage had been the target of several bomb attacks starting in 1996. He said that he would not be intimidated.

In May 1998, Mohammed Buba Marwa imposed fuel rationing in Lagos State in an attempt to tackle petrol shortages and reduce chronic queuing at petrol stations. In July 1998, Marwa opened a new asphalt plant in Lagos, the largest in Nigeria.

Later Career

After retiring from the Nigerian army at the end of his term as Lagos State governor, Brigadier General Marwa founded Albarka Airlines and the Buba Marwa Endowment. In September, 2003, Buba Marwa gave up his position of Chairman / Chief Executive Officer of Albarka Airlines. In May 2007, the government of Nigeria withdrew the operating licenses of Albarka Airlines in controversial circumstance, some say for political reasons. In December 2006, Marwa had announced he would be running in the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) primaries to become the party’s candidate for President of Nigeria. His bid was unsuccessful, and he gave his support to Umaru Musa Yar’Adua, who went on to become president. In 2007 he was appointed Nigeria’s High Commissioner to the Republic of South Africa. Marwa then in 2011 was the gubernatorial candidate of the Congress for Progressive Change, CPC in his Adamawa home state against the then incumbent governor Murtala Nyako. Marwa decamped from APC due to complaints of unfair treatment of his followers after his party CPC merged with ANPP and the ACN following the decamping of Governor Nyako to the same party. In June 2015, Marwa returned to the APC with his followers following the swearing in President Muhammadu Buhari on May 29, 2015.


Maina Maaji Lawan (born 12 July 1954) a former Governor and former Senator for Borno State and a businessman-farmer, the CEO of Dansarki Farms.


Maina Ma’aji Lawan, CON, was born 12 July 1954 at Kauwa in Kukawa Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. He finished his Primary education at Kukawa in 1967 and proceeded to Government College Keffi for his secondary education between 1968 and 1972. He graduated from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria in 1977 where he obtained a BSc degree in Business administration, specializing in finance.

Political Career Borno State, Nigeria

While in active politics, he was a member of the Social Democratic Party (SDP), the Great Nigerian Peoples Party (GNPP), The People’s Democratic Party (PDP), the All Nigerian Peoples Party (ANPP), and the All Progressives Congress (APC). He was elected into the House of Representatives at the age of twenty-four on the platform of the GNPP to represent Kukawa Southeast Federal constituency between 1979-1983.

In December 1991, Senator Lawan was elected Governor of Borno State and served until the 17th of November 1993 when the third republic was aborted by a military coup. In the transition programmes that followed, Maina Ma’aji Lawan was elected Senator for Borno Nort first in 1998 on the platform of UNCP under the Abacha Transition which was itself aborted and thereafter elected three times into the Senate from the same constituency, his last election being in 2011 after which he declined to contest.

During his sojourn in the Senate, Senator Lawan was at various times the Deputy Senate Leader, Senate Minority leader, chairman Senate committees on special projects, National population and Identity, Vice Chairman Senate committees on appropriation and Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) as well as member of several standing and ad-hoc committees including but not limited to National Security and Intelligence, Constitutional Amendment, Finance, Petroleum, and Niger Delta Development Commission.

In 2011, Senator Lawan was conferred with the National Honour of the “Commander of the Order of Niger” (CON) based on his various roles in National Development.

Business Endeavour

As an investor and a highly reputable businessman, Maina Ma’aji Lawan has been successful in establishing several businesses from the early 1980s to date. His business success was always a supporting aspect for his political career.

He was the Managing Director of Madison Nigeria Limited (1982-1991), Chairman and CEO of Comodex Ltd (1995 to date), Chairman CEO KBB Engineering Ltd 1999 to date and Chairman CEO of Dansarki Farms Ltd (2007 to date).

Senator Lawan is into real estate, commerce, commodities trade, and he is very passionate about farming, being a large-scale commercial livestock farmer with extensive interests in cattle, poultry and fisheries.


Air Commodore (retired) Ibrahim Dada was Administrator of Borno State, Nigeria from December 1993 to August 1996, during the military administration of General Sani Abacha. He was a Group Captain when he was appointed Governor. A pragmatic man, he made his priority, the completion of all viable projects that his predecessors had started before considering any new projects. In June 1999, he was required to retire, as were all other former military administrators.

In June 2009, President Umaru Yar’Adua appointed Dada to the Board of the Nigerian Institute of Oil Palm Research


Colonel Victor Afamefula Ozodinobi was appointed military governor of Borno State in August 1996 during the military regime of General Sani Abacha. He stopped the practice of using troops to perform farm work, prevalent before his regime. He was reportedly sacked from his position as governor and retired from the army because he insisted that scholarships should be reserved for the poor citizens of the state. Another reason given is that during a fuel shortage he personally escorted some tanker loads of petrol to prevent them going astray.


General (retired) Augustine Aniebo (born March 23, 1950), was the Military Administrator of Borno State, Nigeria during the military regime of General Sani Abacha. He then became Administrator of Kogi State, Nigeria from August 1998 to 29 May 1999 during the transitional regime of General Abdulsalami Abubakar, handing over to the elected civilian governor Abubakar Audu on May 29, 1999 at the start of the Nigerian Fourth Republic

Borno State Administrator

In May 1997, Nigerian security agents, working with Islamic leaders stormed a Christian church in Maiduguri, Borno State and ejected the pastor and church members. The church leaders appealed to Aniebo to act quickly to avoid a religious crisis. In 1998, he said that the Borno State task force against smuggling had been strengthened to reduce cross-border smuggling of petroleum products to neighboring countries.

Kogi State Administrator

Appointed administrator of Kogi State in August 1998, Aniebo left office on 29 May 1999 without swearing in his successor, handing over by proxy.


Wing Commander (retired) Lawal Ningi Haruna was military governor of Borno State, Nigeria from August 1998 to May 1999 during the transitional regime of General Abdulsalami Abubakar, handing over to the elected civilian governor Mala Kachalla in May 1999.

Group Captain Haruna was appointed administrator of Borno State in August 1998. He had to deal with controversy over the question of teaching Christian Religious Knowledge in public schools, which was opposed by Muslim leaders in the predominantly Muslim state. On 3 November 1998, he announced that separate Muslim and Christian instruction would start in schools with sufficient numbers of Christian pupils, as provided by the constitution. On 11 December riots followed a call from an Imam to attack Christians, with considerable loss of property but no deaths. In June 1999, Haruna was required to retire, as were all other former military administrators.

In December 2000, Haruna alleged that Lt-General Jeremiah Useni had planned the killing of Head of State General Sani Abacha, who had died of obscure causes on 8 June 1998.


Mala Kachalla (November 1941 – 18 April 2007) was Governor of Borno State in Nigeria from 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2003.


Mala Kachalla was born in 1941 in Maiduguri, the capital of Borno State.

Borno Governor

Mala Kachalla was elected as governor of Borno State in April 1999, running for the All People’s Party (APP), which was renamed All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP) due to a factional split. His election was financed by Ali Modu Sheriff, who became Senator for Borno Central.

In August 2000, Borno State decided to adopt Sharia law. Mala Kachalla reassured Christians by emphasising that Sharia, which includes punishments like amputation and flogging, would only apply to Muslims. In February 2001, he established a Sharia Implementation Committee, which investigated the practical steps involved in introducing Sharia law in the state. After receiving the report, Mala Kachalla said the Sharia legal system would come into force in June 2001. Applying only to Muslims, the laws would ban gambling, alcohol and prostitution, among other vices.

In February 2002, riots broke out in Lagos between Hausa and Yoruba groups, during which houses were destroyed and over 100 people died, including women and children. Mala Kachalla met with the Lagos State governor Bola Tinubu and broadcast appeals to both sides to end the violence.

In September 2002 Mala Kachalla said there were conflicting border claims in the Lake Chad area, and that Nigeria was losing control of some island villages there. He said there was no clear-cut demarcation between Borno, Chad and Cameroon, and that the region was plagued by armed rebels and trafficking in illicit arms and children.

In November 2001 police fired at workers in Maiduguri protesting against the withholding of their wages, a breach of a previous pay agreement. The Borno State Police Commissioner imposed a state of emergency. According to the Nigeria Labour Congress President in Borno State, when Mala Kachalla left office leave grant had not been paid for two years, health and hotel workers were on strike, shoe factory workers could not get their terminal benefits and even pensioners had outstanding arrears.

Later Career

Before the April 2003 elections, it became clear that Ali Modu Sheriff would be the ANPP candidate for governor rather than Kachalla. Kachalla left the ANPP and joined the Alliance for Democracy (AD). He was defeated by Ali Modu Sheriff. In February 2006, Kachalla changed parties again, joining the People’s Democratic Party (PDP).[12]

Kachalla died at his home in Maiduguri on 18 April 2007, after a brief illness. He was 66 years old.


Ali Modu Sheriff is a Nigerian politician. He is Borno State’s first governor to serve two consecutive terms (2003–2011). Though Sheriff had held two elected offices as a member of All Nigeria People’s Party, he would later join the All Progressives Congress becoming a founding member of that party. In 2014, Sheriff switched affiliation to the People’s Democratic Party. He acted as the National Working Committee chair from 16 February 2016 until the National Convention, when he was removed and replaced by Ahmed Makarfi. On the 26th of April 2018 he defected back to All Progressives Congress.


Ali Modu Sheriff was born in Ngala Town, Ngala Local Government Area, Borno State in 1956. His father was the business tycoon Galadima Modu Sheriff. He attended Government Secondary School, Bama (1974–1979). He attended the London School of Business, where he studied Insurance, Banking and Finance. In 1981, he joined his father’s construction company as a Director, later becoming Managing Director. In 1985, he registered his first company. His companies include Meroil Organisation and Union Chase.

He was elected as a senator from Borno during the Third Nigerian Republic under the banner of NRC, his opponent then was Kolo Kingibe, wife of the Social Democratic Party, SDP chairman, Babagana Kingibe. He was also a member of the Constitutional Conference and chaired the committee on states and local government.

Senate Career

Ali Modu Sheriff was elected Senator representing Borno Central on the platform of the United Nigeria Congress Party (UNCP) during General Sani Abacha’s military regime. After democracy was restored, in April 1999 he was again elected Senator, Borno Central on the platform of the All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP).

Governor of Borno State

In 2003, he ran for Governor of Borno State on the ANPP platform and won. He was re-elected in 2007 and sworn in on 29 May 2007. In both cases, he defeated the PDP candidate Kashim Ibrahim-Imam.

PDP National Working Committee

During 2014, Sheriff switch affiliation to the People’s Democratic Party. On 16 February 2016, he became the chairman of PDP National Working Committee (Acting), serving until his removal from office at the 2016 National Convention. He was replaced by Ahmed Makarfi as Caretaker Chairman.

PDP Crisis

The Court of Appeal sitting in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, on Friday 17 February 2017 declared former Borno State Governor, Ali Modu Sheriff as the authentic National Chairman of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). In July 2017, following the verdict from a five-man Apex Court, Ali Modu Sheriff was removed as the PDP Chairman and Ahmed Mohammed Makarfi reinstated as the National Chairman of PDP.


He has been accused of being a sponsor to the Islamic sect Boko Haram by an Australian hostage negotiator Stephen Davies.


Kashim Ibrahim Shettima (born 2 September 1966) is a current Senator and the former governor of Borno State.


Governor Shettima is a Muslim from the Kanuri tribe from Borno State and is generally seen as extremely hospitable to other faith and ethnic groups. In the last seven years as Governor, Shettima has maintained amongst his closest aides, an Ibo Christian from Anambra State in the Southeast, an Urhobo Christian from Delta State in the South-South, a Christian from Edo State in the South-South, a Yoruba Christian from the Southwest, a fulani man from Gombe in the northeast and a Hausa man from Zamfara State in the Northwest. Governor Shettima speaks very fluent English and Hausa language. Local and International listeners of his public presentations regularly describe Shettima as being very articulate and intelligent.

Personal life

Kashim Shettima was born in Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria to the family of Sir Kashim Ibrahim. He is married to Nana Shettima, and they have three children: two females and a male.


Mr Kashim attended Lamisula Primary School in Maiduguri from 1972 to 1978; Government Community Secondary School, Biu in southern part of Borno State from 1978 to 1980; transferred to Government Science Secondary School, Potiskum (now in neighbouring Yobe State) where he completed his secondary education in 1983. He studied at the University of Maiduguri and earned a Degree (BSc) in Agricultural Economics in 1989. He had his one-year compulsory membership of the National Youths Service Corps, NYSC, at the defunct Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative Bank, Calabar, capital of Cross River State in South-South, Nigeria, from 1989 to 1990. He obtained a master’s degree (MSc) in Agricultural Economics in 1991 at the University of Ibadan in Southwest, Nigeria. Shettima joined the University of Maiduguri as a Lecturer with the Department of Agricultural Economics and was in the academia from 1991 to 1993.

Early Career

In 1993, he moved into the banking sector and was employed by (now defunct) Commercial Bank of Africa Limited as head of accounts unit at the bank’s office in Ikeja, Lagos State, Southwest, Nigeria. Shettima was there from 1993 to 1997. In 1997 he crossed over to the African International Bank Limited as a Deputy Manager and rose to become a Manager in 2001. In 2001, he moved to the Zenith Bank as head of its main branch in Maiduguri. At the Zenith Bank he rose to Senior Manager/Branch Head; Assistant General Manager (AGM)/Zonal Head (North-East), Deputy General Manager/Zonal Head (North-East) before he stepped out of the Zenith Bank as a General Manager in 2007 following his appointment as Commissioner for Finance in Borno State.

Shettima worked with the Commercial Bank of Africa as an Agricultural Economist at its Ikeja Office, Lagos State (1993-1997). He then became a deputy manager, later manager, at the African International Bank Limited, Kaduna Branch (1997–2001), and was appointed Deputy Manager/Branch Head of the Zenith Bank’s Maiduguri Office in 2001, becoming General Manager five years later. In mid-2007, Shettima was appointed Commissioner of the Borno State Ministry of Finance and Economic Development. Later he became Commissioner in the Ministries of Local Governments and Chieftaincy Affairs, Education, Agriculture and later Health under his predecessor as Borno Governor Ali Modu Sheriff.

Political Career

From 2007 to 2011, he served as Commissioner in 5 Ministries. In the January 2011 ANPP primaries, Engineer Modu Fannami Gubio was selected as candidate for the governorship. However, Gubio was later shot dead by gunmen, and Shettima was selected in a second primary in February 2011. In the 26 April 2011 elections, Shettima won with 531,147 votes while the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) candidate, Muhammed Goni, gained 450,140 votes. He was Commissioner of Local Governments and Chieftaincy Affairs (2008), Education (2009), Agriculture and Natural Resources and finally to the Ministry of Health from where he contested the Governorship in 2011 which he won under the platform of the now defunct All Nigeria Peoples Party, ANPP and was inaugurated on May 29, 2011. He won reelection in 2015 under the All Progressives Congress, APC and was unambiguously chosen as Chairman of the Northern States Governors’ Forum, an umbrella body of Governors in the 19 States located in northern Nigeria. He has so far been driving key changes in the affairs of the forum with focus on promoting northern unity and reviving ailing industries belonging to northern States.

As Governor of Borno State, he has efficiently managed challenges arising from the Boko Haram insurgency which he inherited in 2011. With the approval of the National Security Adviser and the Nigerian Army in 2013, his government formalized establishment of youth volunteers called the Civilian JTF. The volunteers have played very significant role in supporting the military in ongoing fight against Boko Haram insurgents. He approves salaries, kits and patrol vehicles for the civilian JTF while at the same time giving so much support to the Nigerian Armed Forces. He leads in mobilization of community-based intelligence gathering and the provision of hundreds of patrol vehicles and material logistics to the military in particular and to all other security agencies. In September, 2014, Maiduguri, the seat of Government became very vulnerable to being occupied by insurgents. The fear was so intense that notable residents relocated their families to Abuja. However, amidst such fright, Governor Kashim Shettima who was out of the country for an official assignment, returned to Maiduguri in a show of courage and patriotism. On his return, the Governor mobilized residents towards rising up in defense of their ancestry. Although Maiduguri didn’t fall, the insurgents succeeded in occupying 20 out of the 27 local government areas of the State before the Nigerian Armed Forces liberated them between 2015 and 2016. The Governor has been coordinating and leading the temporary accommodation, rehabilitation and resettlement of victims of the Boko Haram insurgents. With peace building, Governor Kashim Shettima has been championing Reconstruction, Rehabilitation and Resettlement of victims. He has focused so much attention on expansion and remodeling of existing schools and the building news boarding primary and junior secondary schools to cater for over 50, 000 unaccompanied orphans whose parents were killed by insurgents across the 27 local government areas of the State.

Governor Kashim Shettima’s leadership credentials have attracted positive recognition within and outside Nigeria. Governor Shettima emerged the 2014 Governor of the Year (Leadership Newspapers), Governor of the Year, 2015, (Nigeria Union of Journalists, national body); Governor of the Year, 2015 (NewsWatchTimes Newspapers); Governor of the Year, 2015 (Vanguard Newspapers); Governor of the Year, 2016 (Tell Magazine); 2017 Zik Prize for Leadership; Kaduna NUJ Award for courage and exceptional leadership (2017), FCT NUJ Merit Award for exceptional Leadership, 2017.

In February, 2019 he became the winner of the Borno Central Senatorial District election, thereby replacing Senator Babakaka Bashir. Borno Central Senatorial District comprises eight local government areas: Maiduguri, Jere, Konduga, Bama, Mafa, Dikwa, Ngala and Kala Balge.


Babagana Umara Zulum (born August 26, 1969) is a Nigerian professor and politician. He was elected as the governor of Borno State in the governorship election of March 9, 2019 under the platform of the All Progressive Congress (APC). He was sworn in as governor of Borno State on May 29, 2019.

Early Life

Babagana was born in August 26, 1969 in Mafa Local Government Area of Borno State.


After elementary schooling in Mafa Primary School from 1975 to 1980 and secondary education in Government Secondary School, Monguno from 1980 to 1985, he studied at the University of Maiduguri, where he obtained a degree in Agriculture Engineering after which he served as a youth corps member with Katsina State Polytechnic. He proceeded to the University of Ibadan from 1997 to 1998, where he obtained a master’s degree in Agriculture Engineering. In 2005, he enrolled for a PhD in Soil and Water Engineering with the University of Maiduguri which he completed in 2009.


Babagana’s first appointment was in 1989 with Borno State Civil Service as an Assistant Technical Officer in the State’s Ministry of Agriculture. In 1990, Babagana moved into Borno State Unified Local Government Service as Senior Field Overseer and later Principal Water Engineer. In 2000, he took up an appointment with the University of Maiduguri as an assistant Lecturer where he rose to the rank of Professor. Babagana was Deputy Dean and Acting Dean, Faculty of Engineering in 2010 and 2011 respectively. In 2011, Babagana Umara was appointed the Rector of Ramat Polytechnic. Meanwhile, he retained his teaching position in the University of Maiduguri. In 2015, he was made Commissioner of Reconstruction, Rehabilitation and Resettlement by Governor Kashim Shetima of Borno State, a position he held till 2018.


On October 1, 2018, he won the gubernatorial primaries of the All Progressive Congress for Borno State. Professor Babagana was elected to the Office of the Governor of Borno State at the 2019 governorship election held on March 9, 2019 with 1,175,440 votes.


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