AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY (ABU) is a federal government research university in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.ABU was founded on 4 October 1962, as the University of Northern Nigeria.
Former name: University of Northern Nigeria
Type: Public, research.
Established: 4 October 1962
Chancellor: Igwe Nnaemeka Alfred Achebe, Obi of Onitsha.
Vice-Chancellor: Professor Kabir Bala
Location: Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Colours: Green and white
Ahmadu Bello University banner.png
The university operates two campuses: Samaru (main) and Kongo in Zaria. There is pre-degree school in Funtua a few kilometres from main campus owned by the university. The Samaru campus houses the administrative offices and the faculties of physical sciences, life sciences, social sciences, arts and languages, education, environmental design, engineering, medical sciences, agricultural sciences and research facilities. The Kongo campus hosts the faculties of Law and Administration. The Faculty of Administration consists of Accounting, Business Administration, Local Government and Development Studies and Public Administration Departments. Additionally, the university is responsible for other institutions and programmes at other locations.
It is named after the Sardauna of Sokoto, Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello, the first premier of Northern Nigeria.
The university runs a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate programmes (and offers associate degrees and vocational and remedial programmes). It has a large medical programme with its own ABU Teaching Hospital, one of the largest teaching hospitals in Nigeria and Africa.
The University has thirteen faculties:
Faculty of Administration
Faculty of Agriculture
Faculty of Arts
Faculty of Education
Faculty of Engineering
Faculty of Environmental Design
Faculty of Law
Faculty of Life Science
Faculty of Medicine
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science
Faculty of Physical Science
Faculty of Social Science
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
The university also has a Division of Agric Colleges (DAC) a research institution established before the university was but later merged with the university.
Foundation and first years:
As Nigeria approached independence on October 1, 1960, it had only a single university: the University of Ibadan, established in 1948. The important Ashby Commission report (submitted a month before independence) recommended adding new universities in each of Nigeria’s then-three regions and the capital, Lagos. Even before the report, however, the regional governments had begun planning universities. In May 1960, the Northern Region had upgraded the School of Arabic Studies in Kano to become the Ahmadu Bello College for Arabic and Islamic Studies. (The college was named after the region’s dominant political leader, Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello.)
The Ashby Commission report recommendations gave a new impetus and direction. It was ultimately decided to create a University of Northern Nigeria at Zaria (rather than Kano). The university would take over the facilities of the Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology at Samaru just outside Zaria, and would incorporate the Ahmadu Bello College in Kano, the Agricultural Research Institute at Samaru, the Institute of Administration at Zaria, and the Veterinary Research Institute at Vom on the Jos Plateau. The law establishing the new university was passed by the Northern Region legislature in 1961. It was decided to name the university after Ahmadu Bello, and the Kano college took the name of Abdullahi Bayero, a past Emir of Kano.
At the opening on 4 October 1962, thanks in part to absorbing existing institutions, ABU claimed four faculties comprising 15 departments. Students in all programmes numbered only 426.
The challenges were enormous. Over 60 years of British colonial rule, education in the Northern Region had lagged far behind that of the two southern regions. Few students from the north had qualifications for university entrance, and fewer still northerners had qualifications for teaching appointments. Of the original student body, only 147 were from the north.
ABU’s first vice chancellor (principal administrator and leader) was British, as were most of the professorial appointments. Only two Nigerians — Dr. Iya Abubakar (Mathematics) and Adamu Baikie (Education) — were among the earliest round of faculty appointments. Facilities on the main Samaru campus were inadequate, and the administration and integration of the physically separated pre-existing institutions was difficult.
Nevertheless, under the vice chancellorship of Dr. Norman Alexander, academic and administrative staffing was developed, new departments and programmes were created, major building plans were undertaken, and student enrollments grew rapidly. By the end of Alexander’s tenure (1965–66), almost 1,000 students were enrolled. The New Zealand-born Alexander, from 1966, became a kind of “freelance vice-chancellor”, offering his expertise to help in the setting up of other Commonwealth universities in the West Indies, Fiji and Africa.
Development through the middle 1970s:
In 1966, Dr. Alexander was succeeded as ABU vice chancellor by Dr. Ishaya Shuaibu Audu, a pediatrician and associate professor at the University of Lagos. Audu had been born in Wusasa, near Zaria, in 1928. A native Hausa, he was ABU’s first Nigerian vice chancellor and a northerner. However, his membership in the Hausa Christian community of Wusasa probably had some later impact on his tenure.
ABU was seriously affected by the coups and the anti-Igbo riots of 1966. But, under Dr. Audu’s leadership, ABU was to grow and develop at an even faster pace. Growth in student enrollments had been held hostage to growth and development of A-level training at the secondary school level. So beginning in 1968–69 ABU broke free from the British three-year heritage and established the School of Basic Studies to provide advanced secondary pre-degree training on campus. Students who entered through the School of Basic Studies essentially embarked on a four-year programme toward a bachelor’s degree.
Opposed initially by some, the school proved a great success and enrollments expanded even more rapidly. By its tenth year ABU total enrollments including non- and pre-degree programmes were put at over 7,000 of which more than half were in degree programmes. In its first ten years, the University of Ibadan produced 615 graduates. At ABU the corresponding figure after 10 years was 2,333 first degrees, along with several advanced degrees.
From the beginning, ABU was remarkable for the breadth of its ambition. In its institutions, but mainly on or close by the main campus by Samaru, ABU was creating a range of programmes that only the very most comprehensive of U.S. state universities could have matched. Ranging far beyond the standard fields of the arts, languages, social sciences and sciences, it included engineering, medicine (the Zaria hospital was an ABU teaching hospital), pharmacy, architecture, and a wide variety of agricultural departments including veterinary medicine.
What was called the Kongo campus just outside the old city in Zaria taught public administration and carried out a programme of in-service training for local government throughout the north. The Faculty of Law was based at the Kongo campus. The Faculty of Education taught education courses and managed the Advanced Teacher’s Colleges in the northern states. At the Kano campus (now called Abdullahi Bayero College) ABU taught courses in Hausa, Arabic and Islamic studies.
ABU was likewise remarkable among Nigeria’s universities for the breadth and national character of its student recruitment. ABU had been founded to be the University of Northern Nigeria. Yet, more than any other of Nigeria’s universities, ABU has served students from every state of the Nigerian federation.
Professorial staffing to serve the burgeoning student enrollments and course offerings was a potential limitation during this period. In the early 1970s relatively abundant funding made it possible to send some senior academic staff to overseas institutions to complete advanced degrees. A small but increasing number of Nigerians with Ph.D.s or other advanced degrees were returning from abroad (but ABU had to compete with other Nigerian universities to recruit them). In the meantime, appointment of expatriate teaching staff was essential and it expanded greatly and diversified in nationalities. Vice chancellor Audu endeavored to balance the goals of Nigerianization (and “northernization”) of ABU’s professors with the commitment to maintaining all programmes at an international level of academic quality.
By 1975, this balance was strained. The teaching faculty remained more than half expatriate overall; at senior levels still more so. The development of Nigerian staffing (and especially of northern-origin teaching staff) was perceived as too slow. In 1975, ABU turned toward a much heavier emphasis on internal staff development as it adopted the Graduate Assistantship programme. Under this programme, the best graduates from the departments’ undergraduate programmes are recruited to join the department as staff-in-training and undertake advanced training as they gain on-the-job experience. Within a few years, a significant proportion of ABU senior staff were products of the internal training programmes. From 1975, the proportion of expatriate teaching staff diminished rapidly.
By the end of the vice chancellorship of Ishaya Audu (mid-1975), ABU was solidly established as Nigeria’s largest university and among Africa’s academically strongest university institutions. Strong growth has continued. But ABU has been increasingly buffeted by external events and challenges. No vice-chancellorship has been as long (or, arguably, as successful) as that of Ishaya Audu. Beginning in the early 1980s, ABU was hit with sharply reduced funding as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank imposed the Structural Adjustment Programme: the value of the national currency plummeted in relation to international currencies. Staff salaries were reduced rapidly in cost-of-living terms, and funding for facilities, library acquisitions, and other necessary resources was abruptly curtailed. Further, ABU increasingly competed for students, staff and funding with all the other institutions in the rapidly expanding Nigerian university system.
In May 1986 the security forces killed around 20 demonstrators and bystanders at ABU in order to prevent a peaceful demonstration against the implementation of the Structural Adjustment Programme.
Over the years, ABU has been affected by national political instability. The very fact of ABU’s strikingly “national character” (in drawing students and staff from an unusually broad range of Nigeria’s regional, ethnic and religious communities) may incline the institution to internal instability. ABU has been among Nigeria’s universities that have suffered most from closures.
Yet ABU continues to occupy a particularly important place among Nigerian universities. As it approaches its half-century anniversary, ABU can claim to be the largest and the most extensive of universities in Sub-Saharan Africa. It covers a land area of 7,000 hectares (27 sq mi) and encompasses 12 academic faculties, a postgraduate school and 82 academic departments. It has five institutes, six specialized centers, a Division of Agricultural Colleges, demonstration secondary and primary schools, as well as extension and consultancy services which provide services to the wider society. The total student enrollment in the university’s degree and sub-degree programmes is about 35,000, drawn from every state of Nigeria, from Africa, and from the rest of world. There are about 1,400 academic and research staff and 5,000 support staff.
The university has nurtured two new institutions: Bayero University Kano and the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University of Technology, Bauchi. Some 27 tertiary institutions made up of colleges of education, polytechnics and schools of basic or preliminary studies are affiliated to it.
Ahmadu Bello University has a chancellor as its ceremonial head, while the vice-chancellor is the chief executive and academic officer. The vice-chancellor is usually appointed for a five-year, non-renewable term. The 14th and current vice-chancellor, Professor Ibrahim Garba, took office on 1 May 2015. Below is the list of all ABU vice-chancellors. The number 8 in the series is a sole-administrator appointed by then head of state Sani Abacha after a major conflict.
1 Professor Norman Alexander 1961–1966 Physicist.
2 Professor Ishaya Audu 1966–1975 Medical doctor.
3 Professor Iya Abubakar 1975–1978 Mathematician.
4 Professor Oladipo Akikugbe 1978–1979 Medical doctor.
5 Professor Ango Abdullahi 1979–1986 Agricultural Scientist.
6 Professor Adamu N. Muhammad 1986–1991 Entomologist.
7 Professor Daniel Soror 1991–1995 Veterinarian.
8 Major-General Mamman Kontagora 1995–1998 (Sole Administrator).
9 Professor Abdullahi Mahadi 1999–2004 Historian.
10 Professor Shehu Usman Abdullahi 2004–2009 Veterinarian.
11 Professor Jarlath Udoudo Umoh 2009–2009 Veterinarian.
12 Professor Aliyu Mohammed 2009–2010 Linguist (English).
13 Professor Abdullahi Mustapha 2010–2015 Pharmacist.
14 Professor Ibrahim Garba 2015–2020 Geologist.
15 Professor Kabir Bala 2020–Date Construction Management.
source: Undergraduate Handbook 11th ed.
For a more comprehensive list, see List of Ahmadu Bello University alumni.
The Ahmadu Bello University is notable for producing prominent people and Nigerian leaders, including many former and current state governors and ministers. Amongst the alumni are:
Magaji Abdullahi mni, former National Chairman National Centre Party of Nigeria (NCPN), former Senator, former Deputy Governor
Alash’le Abimiku, Executive Director of the International Research Centre of Excellence at the Institute of Human Virology Nigeria
Muhammed K. Abubakar, academic, former Minister.
Mohammed Bello Adoke, former Minister of Justice & Attorney General of the Federation.
Ahmed Abdullah, OON, former Agriculture and Rural Development Minister.
Atiku Abubakar GCON, former vice president, Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Yayale Ahmed, former secretary to the Government of the Federation.
Aisha Alhassan, former minister of women affairs.
Adamu Aliero, former governor, Kebbi State
Solomon Arase, former IGP, Nigeria Police Force.
Ayodele Awojobi, scientist and professor at University of Lagos.
Sunday Awoniyi, Northern Yoruba Leader, former chairman ACF.
Anthony Ayine, auditor general for the Federation.
Mohammed Bawa, former Ekiti State governor
Yahaya Bello, governor, Kogi state.
Franca Brown, actress.
Maryam Ciroma, former Minister of Women Affairs.
Yahaya Abubakar Abdullahi, Senate Majority Leader of the Nigerian 9th National Assembly
Ibrahim Hassan Dankwambo, former governor, Gombe State.
Usman Saidu Nasamu Dakingari, former governor, Kebbi State.
Lawal Musa Daura, former director general, Nigerian State Security Service.
Oladipo Diya, GCON, former vice president/CGS, Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Donald Duke, former Cross River state governor.
Muhammed Mamman Nami, Executive Chairman, Federal Inland Revenue Service FIRS
Afakriya Gadzama, former Director General Nigerian State Security Service.
Ibrahim Gaidam, former governor, Yobe State.
Jerry Gana, former information minister.
Abubakar Ibn Umar Garba, Shehu of Borno.
Ibrahim Garba, former vice chancellor (ABU)
Kabiru Ibrahim Gaya, former Kano state governor.
Isa Marte Hussaini, professor, pharmacologist
Bukar Ibrahim, former governor, Yobe State
Ibrahim Kpotun Idris, former IGP, Nigeria Police Force.
Catherine Uju Ifejika, chairman and CEO, Brittania-U Limited.
Azubuike Ihejirika, former Chief of Army Staff
Attahiru Jega, professor, former chairman, Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC).
Zainab Abdulkadir Kure, politician.
Idris Legbo Kutigi, former chief justice of Nigeria.
Shehu Ladan, former group MD, NNPC.
Sanusi Lamido, former governor Central Bank of Nigeria, former Emir of Kano.
Ibrahim Lamorde, former chairman, EFCC.
Rilwanu Lukman, former secretary general OPEC & Petroleum Minister.
Ahmed Makarfi, former Kaduna state governor
Umaru Tanko Al-Makura, former governor, Nasarawa State.
Dino Melaye, senator, Kogi West.
Ahmed Tijjani Mora, pharmacist, president of ABU Alumni Association.
Adamu Mu’azu, former Bauchi State governor.
Faruk Imam Muhammad, justice, Kogi state Judiciary.
Mansur Mukhtar, former executive director of the World Bank.
Dahiru Musdapher, former chief justice of Nigeria.
Abdullahi Mustapha, former vice chancellor (ABU).
Ghali Umar Na’Abba, former Speaker, House of Representatives.
Usman Bayero Nafada, former deputy speaker, House of Representatives.
Rebecca Ndjoze-Ojo, Namibian, politician.
Demas Nwoko, artist and architect.
Samuel Oboh, architect.
Gani Odutokun, artist and educator.
Uche Okeke, artist and educator.
Mike Omotosho, national chairman of the Labour Party (Nigeria).
Bruce Onobrakpeya, artist.
Samuel Ioraer Ortom, former Minister of State Trade and Investments.
Nuhu Ribadu, former chairman, EFCC.
Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai, Governor Kaduna State.
Aminu Safana, doctor/politician.
Namadi Sambo, former vice president of Nigeria.
Ibrahim Shekarau, former Kano state governor.
Ibrahim Shema, former governor, Katsina State.
Abdullahi Aliyu Sumaila, administrator.
Ussif Rashid Sumaila, economist.
Danbaba Suntai, former governor, Taraba State
Ibrahim Umar, former vice chancellor and scientist.
Patrick Ibrahim Yakowa, former governor Kaduna state.
Nenadi Usman, former finance minister.
Shamsuddeen Usman, former Minister of National Planning.
Turai Yar’Adua, former first lady
Umaru Musa Yar’Adua, GCFR, former president of Nigeria.
Isa Yuguda, former governor, Bauchi State.
Andrew Yakubu, former group MD, NNPC.
Ibrahim Zakzaky prominent Shi’ite-Islam cleric, founder Islamic Movement in Nigeria.